LXD Input Devices Driver

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LXD Driver LXD is a daemon which provides a REST API to drive LXC containers. Containers are lightweight OS-level Virtualization instances, they behave like Virtual Machines but don’t suffer from hardware emulation processing penalties by sharing the kernel with the host. The package provides the installation files for Microsoft USB Input Device Driver version 10.0.4. If the driver is already installed on your system, updating (overwrite-installing) may fix various issues, add new functions, or just upgrade to the available version.

LXD supports the following network types:

  • bridge: Creates an L2 bridge for connecting instances to (can provide local DHCP and DNS).

The configuration keys are namespaced with the following namespaces currently supported for all network types:

  • maas (MAAS network identification)
  • user (free form key/value for user metadata)

network: bridge

As one of the possible network configuration types under LXD, LXD supports creating and managing network bridges.LXD bridges can leverage underlying native Linux bridges and Open vSwitch.

Creation and management of LXD bridges is performed via the lxc network command.A bridge created by LXD is by default 'managed' which means that LXD also will additionally set up a local dnsmasqDHCP server and if desired also perform NAT for the bridge (this is the default.)

When a bridge is managed by LXD, configuration values under the bridge namespace can be used to configure it.

Additionally, LXD can utilize a pre-existing Linux bridge. In this case, the bridge does not need to be created vialxc network and can simply be referenced in an instance or profile device configuration as follows:

Network configuration properties:

A complete list of configuration settings for LXD networks can be found below.

The following configuration key namespaces are currently supported for bridge networks:

  • bridge (L2 interface configuration)
  • fan (configuration specific to the Ubuntu FAN overlay)
  • tunnel (cross-host tunneling configuration)
  • ipv4 (L3 IPv4 configuration)
  • ipv6 (L3 IPv6 configuration)
  • dns (DNS server and resolution configuration)
  • raw (raw configuration file content)

It is expected that IP addresses and subnets are given using CIDR notation (1.1.1.1/24 or fd80:1234::1/64).

The exception being tunnel local and remote addresses which are just plain addresses (1.1.1.1 or fd80:1234::1).

KeyTypeConditionDefaultDescription
bridge.driverstring-nativeBridge driver ('native' or 'openvswitch')
bridge.external_interfacesstring--Comma separate list of unconfigured network interfaces to include in the bridge
bridge.hwaddrstring--MAC address for the bridge
bridge.modestring-standardBridge operation mode ('standard' or 'fan')
bridge.mtuinteger-1500Bridge MTU (default varies if tunnel or fan setup)
dns.domainstring-lxdDomain to advertise to DHCP clients and use for DNS resolution
dns.modestring-managedDNS registration mode ('none' for no DNS record, 'managed' for LXD generated static records or 'dynamic' for client generated records)
fan.overlay_subnetstringfan mode240.0.0.0/8Subnet to use as the overlay for the FAN (CIDR notation)
fan.typestringfan modevxlanThe tunneling type for the FAN ('vxlan' or 'ipip')
fan.underlay_subnetstringfan modeauto (on create only)Subnet to use as the underlay for the FAN (CIDR notation). Use 'auto' to use default gateway subnet
ipv4.addressstringstandard modeauto (on create only)IPv4 address for the bridge (CIDR notation). Use 'none' to turn off IPv4 or 'auto' to generate a new random unused subnet
ipv4.dhcpbooleanipv4 addresstrueWhether to allocate addresses using DHCP
ipv4.dhcp.expirystringipv4 dhcp1hWhen to expire DHCP leases
ipv4.dhcp.gatewaystringipv4 dhcpipv4.addressAddress of the gateway for the subnet
ipv4.dhcp.rangesstringipv4 dhcpall addressesComma separated list of IP ranges to use for DHCP (FIRST-LAST format)
ipv4.firewallbooleanipv4 addresstrueWhether to generate filtering firewall rules for this network
ipv4.natbooleanipv4 addressfalseWhether to NAT (defaults to true for regular bridges where ipv4.address is generated and always defaults to true for fan bridges)
ipv4.nat.orderstringipv4 addressbeforeWhether to add the required NAT rules before or after any pre-existing rules
ipv4.nat.addressstringipv4 address-The source address used for outbound traffic from the bridge
ipv4.routesstringipv4 address-Comma separated list of additional IPv4 CIDR subnets to route to the bridge
ipv4.routingbooleanipv4 addresstrueWhether to route traffic in and out of the bridge
ipv6.addressstringstandard modeauto (on create only)IPv6 address for the bridge (CIDR notation). Use 'none' to turn off IPv6 or 'auto' to generate a new random unused subnet
ipv6.dhcpbooleanipv6 addresstrueWhether to provide additional network configuration over DHCP
ipv6.dhcp.expirystringipv6 dhcp1hWhen to expire DHCP leases
ipv6.dhcp.rangesstringipv6 stateful dhcpall addressesComma separated list of IPv6 ranges to use for DHCP (FIRST-LAST format)
ipv6.dhcp.statefulbooleanipv6 dhcpfalseWhether to allocate addresses using DHCP
ipv6.firewallbooleanipv6 addresstrueWhether to generate filtering firewall rules for this network
ipv6.natbooleanipv6 addressfalseWhether to NAT (will default to true if unset and a random ipv6.address is generated)
ipv6.nat.orderstringipv6 addressbeforeWhether to add the required NAT rules before or after any pre-existing rules
ipv6.nat.addressstringipv6 address-The source address used for outbound traffic from the bridge
ipv6.routesstringipv6 address-Comma separated list of additional IPv6 CIDR subnets to route to the bridge
ipv6.routingbooleanipv6 addresstrueWhether to route traffic in and out of the bridge
maas.subnet.ipv4stringipv4 address-MAAS IPv4 subnet to register instances in (when using network property on nic)
maas.subnet.ipv6stringipv6 address-MAAS IPv6 subnet to register instances in (when using network property on nic)
raw.dnsmasqstring--Additional dnsmasq configuration to append to the configuration file
tunnel.NAME.groupstringvxlan239.0.0.1Multicast address for vxlan (used if local and remote aren't set)
tunnel.NAME.idintegervxlan0Specific tunnel ID to use for the vxlan tunnel
tunnel.NAME.interfacestringvxlan-Specific host interface to use for the tunnel
tunnel.NAME.localstringgre or vxlan-Local address for the tunnel (not necessary for multicast vxlan)
tunnel.NAME.portintegervxlan0Specific port to use for the vxlan tunnel
tunnel.NAME.protocolstringstandard mode-Tunneling protocol ('vxlan' or 'gre')
tunnel.NAME.remotestringgre or vxlan-Remote address for the tunnel (not necessary for multicast vxlan)
tunnel.NAME.ttlintegervxlan1Specific TTL to use for multicast routing topologies

Those keys can be set using the lxc tool with:

Integration with systemd-resolved

If the system running LXD uses systemd-resolved to perform DNSlookups, it's possible to notify resolved of the domain(s) thatLXD is able to resolve. This requires telling resolved thespecific bridge(s), nameserver address(es), and dns domain(s).

For example, if LXD is using the lxdbr0 interface, get theipv4 address with lxc network get lxdbr0 ipv4.address command(the ipv6 can be used instead or in addition), and the domainwith lxc network get lxdbr0 dns.domain (if unset, the domainis lxd as shown in the table above). Then notify resolved:

Replace lxdbr0 with the actual bridge name, and 1.2.3.4 withthe actual address of the nameserver (without the subnet netmask).

Also replace lxd with the domain name. Note the ~ before thedomain name is important; it tells resolved to use thisnameserver to look up only this domain; no matter what youractual domain name is, you should prefix it with ~. Also,since the shell may expand the ~ character, you may need toinclude it in quotes.

In newer releases of systemd, the systemd-resolve command has beendeprecated, however it is still provided for backwards compatibility(as of this writing). The newer method to notify resolved is usingthe resolvectl command, which would be done in two steps:

This resolved configuration will persist as long as the bridgeexists, so you must repeat this command each reboot and afterLXD is restarted. Also note this only works if the bridgedns.mode is not none.

Note that depending on the dns.domain used, you may need to disableDNSSEC in resolved to allow for DNS resolution. This can be done throughthe DNSSEC option in resolved.conf.

IPv6 prefix size

For optimal operation, a prefix size of 64 is preferred.Larger subnets (prefix smaller than 64) should work properly too butaren't typically that useful for SLAAC.

Smaller subnets while in theory possible when using stateful DHCPv6 forIPv6 allocation aren't properly supported by dnsmasq and may be thesource of issue. If you must use one of those, static allocation oranother standalone RA daemon be used.

Allow DHCP, DNS with Firewalld

In order to allow instances to access the DHCP and DNS server that LXD runs on the host when using firewalldyou need to add the host's bridge interface to the trusted zone in firewalld.

To do this permanently (so that it persists after a reboot) run the following command:

E.g. for a bridged network called lxdbr0 run the command:

This will then allow LXD's own firewall rules to take effect.

How to let Firewalld control the LXD's iptables rules

When using firewalld and LXD together, iptables rules can overlaps. For example, firewalld could erase LXD iptables rules if it is started after LXD daemon, then LXD container will not be able to do any oubound internet access.One way to fix it is to delegate to firewalld the LXD's iptables rules and to disable the LXD ones.

First step is to allow DNS and DHCP.

Then to tell to LXD totally stop to set iptables rules (because firewalld will do it):

Finally, to enable iptables firewalld's rules for LXD usecase (in this example, we suppose the bridge interface is lxdbr0 and the associated IP range is 10.0.0.0/24:

To check the rules are taken into account by firewalld:

Warning: what is exposed above is not a fool-proof approach and may end up inadvertently introducing a security risk.

There may come a time when your Windows 10-powered machine will just not recognise a USB device. This issue has existed on Windows since the days of Windows 98, and sadly, Windows 10 also seems to have inherited the quirk. Thankfully it isn’t difficult to make your device detect your USB device. Follow the below-mentioned methods to see if your computer gains senses and stars detecting your device.

Restart

As Moss and Roy famously put it in The IT Crowd TV show, a simple restart can do wonders for you. So plug out the device, reboot the computer and plug it back in to see if anything changes.

Driver Issue

Sometimes your USB device, which is plug-and-play nature really need a set of codes, in this case known as a driver, to interact with your device. If the computer prompts you to install a driver, let it try. If it doesn’t, go to Control Panel > Printers and devices to see if there is any Unidentified USB device or Unknown device listed there. In case there is, go to its Properties and update its driver. You might again need to reboot the machine, Alternatively, you might want to visit USB device’s manufacturer website to get a driver for it.

Plug-out all other USB devices

If your newly inserted device isn’t getting read by the computer, try disconnecting other USB devices to see if anything helps. Sometimes having multiple devices on the machine may create a conflict.

Lxd Input Devices Driver Win 7

Lxd input devices driver win 7

LXD Input Devices Driver

Fix USB Root Hub

If the aforementioned methods still don’t make your device recognisable, you could try opening Device Manager, expanding USB Serial Bus controllers. Once there, right click on USB Root Hub and click Properties. Click on the Power Management tab and uncheck the option that says “Allow the computer to turn off this device to save power”. If there are more than one USB Root Hub listed, you will need to perform the same with every entry. Click OK and restart your computer. Plug back the USB device in and see if the computer is able to recognise it.

Try a different computer / operating system

Lxd Input Devices Driver Device

If your USB device is still not showing up on the system, you might want to try it on any other device, and also check if it works on any other operating system. In case it does, transfer all your important files onto a different device. In case it doesn’t, we’re afraid your USB device has probably gone rogue.